This tutorial shows how to model a **parametric “treehouse” structure** from scratch. In the first part of the tutorial we are going to model an **efficient script with variable shape, dimensions, number of cabins**, etc. , which will be primary used in an **early phase of planning**. In the second part we will add some features, such as roof and stairs to one of the preferred variants selected from the first part.

**Part 1 – basic geometry**

**1. Range based geometry** with variable height (20 meters) and number of sections – polygons

**2. Graph Mapper Cross section **- using Bezier curve to imitate the shape of a tree trunk and set boundaries using **Remap**, connect to Radius (Polygon)

3. Possible curvature of the tree trunk (column) when X and Y coordinates are connected to Construct Point

4. Twisting the column by rotating every polygon using range and domain with the seeked total rotation, e.g. 90 degrees

5. Select the right polygons for creating base points of cabin location by using **Shift List** and **Dispatch**

6. Variable offset using **Graph Mapper** and **Polygon**

7. **Explode** polygons into segments and find position of the end point by using **Parameter**, position can be set by Graph Mapper or more precisely with **Gene Pool**

8. To find the Start Point of strut or tie we have to **Explode** and **Evaluate** the primary polygon from step 5.

9. Now we need to **shift Tree** to connect the points in the right order using **Tree Statistics** and **Tree Branch **- this is a cool feature worth saving to Snippets

10. Pick the right pairs of strut and tie using **List Item** and **Dispatch **

11. Create strut cross section by using **Perp Frames** , Polygon and Loft

12. Create cabins as **Center Box** with base in the end point of struts, use **Expression** (x/2) to display user-friendly dimensions of cabins.

13. Save favorite **Slider**, **Gene Pool**,** Graph Mapper** settings as State and restore it later

**Part 2 – Improved cabins, Kangaroo roof, stairs**

1. **Deconstruct Brep** to find the upper and bottom side of the box

2. **Scale **surfaces around center (found by **Center** from Heteroptera plugin – https://www.food4rhino.com/en/app/heteroptera), then **Loft**

3. Find front face of the solid using Deconstruct Brep and Scale it to create opening

4. **Solid Difference** to cut out scaled front face from the solid

To make tensile roof structure in Kangaroo2 we first need to create mesh, here we use **Mesh Surface **component with surface taken from *Step 1. (Deconstruct Brep – bottom surface)*

5. Selected surface is moved and scaled around center, then we create mesh using **Mesh Surface **with adequate number of quads in both directions (U V count)

6. Create *GoalObjects* which will be connected to Kangaroo **Solver**

7. **Show **is used to select geometry which will be visualized during calculation; therefore, connect it to created Mesh

8. To set edge lengths of a mesh connect **EdgeLengths**

9. Create anchor points of future structure by using **Anchor**, to create corner points use component **MeshCorners**, to create peak anchor point use **NakedVertices** and **Closest Point**, which will find the center point in a mesh under the peak point

10. **Merge** and connect to **Solver**, add **Button** for *Reset* and **Boolean Toggle** for switching solver off and on.

11. To visualize smooth surface without lines and points connect **Clean Tree** with **Mesh** to select nothing but mesh (it will show error becouse it can’t convert lines to mesh, which is wanted result).

To create closed structure we can use another Kangaroo Solver with Mesh taken from previous visualization (Step. 11)

12. Connect **Show**, **EdgeLengths** and **Anchor** with **NakedVertices** to previous **Mesh**

13. Create peak anchor point by using **Closest Point** where *Point *is taken from previous *Move – Geometry *and *Cloud* is also connected to previous *NakedVertices*

14. Repeat steps 10 and 11

15. To create roof above the main cabin repeat the steps above but instead of one peak anchor point use **Line SDL** and **Divide Curve** to achieve this shape

16. To create a parametric staircase start with a **Curve** drew in Rhino on a XY Plane

17. **Divide Curve** with required step count and use the parameter to **Shatter**

18. **Offset Curve** by width of the staircase and **Loft**

19. To create a landing, substract number of steps which will be used as landing from **List Length**, then **Split List** at that index

20. Raise the stairs *(List A)* by moving it with **Range** and **Domain** with required *Height* of the staircase

21. **Move** the stair landing to the same height as the final step, then combine both in one **Geometry**

22. To Add stair raisers **Deconstruct Brep **and find front edge by** List Item**

23. Shift Tree by using Tree Statistics and Tree Branch

24. **Extrude** in negative direction by height of the riser (5 meters / 27 steps)

25. To create **railing**, first select points on the edge of every step by using **List Item**, first list will be the outer points and second list the inner points

26. Connect the points and fit them to curve using **Nurbs Curve**

27. Lift the curves using **Move** by required height of railing

28. **Extrude** it in the opposite (- z) direction by height of the railing + height of one step

29. To add railing on the stair landing select last points from the step 25. using **Tree Statistics** and **Tree Branch**

30. Split them into outer and inner points using **Dispatch**

31. Select points from landing *Geometry* using **Deconstruct Brep**, then apply **Dispatch **with *Dispatch pattern* (T/F/F/T)

32. Adjust points by using **Cull Index** and **Sort Points** components

33. Connect points with **Polyline** and** Extrude** them with same direction and height as railing on the stairs

34. Repeat these steps to create staircase to every cabin with different curvature

After we are finished with modeling geometry we can perform for example simplified structural analysis of **Part 1** and verify dimensions of elements used. For quick and parametric structural analysis I can recommend plugin **Karamba3D – ** https://www.karamba3d.com/ (in the tab *Learn* you can find *Examples* and well written *Manual*).

**Final Visualization **- done in Twinmotion using Datasmith Exporter Plugin from Rhino7 (https://www.unrealengine.com/en-US/datasmith/plugins)

**Files:**

Grasshopper File – Tutorial – Parametric Cliff Tower

Rhino 7 File – staircase curves